Text structure is how information is organized in writing. Text structures, or patterns of organization, not only vary from writing to writing, but text structures may also change frequently from paragraph to paragraph within a single piece of writing. Though not all text can fit snugly into one of the patterns of organizations explained in this website, the purpose of this website is to prepare students to identify text structure on standardized tests. Though requirements vary from state to state, in many states, students are required to accurately identify the text structure in specific passages. We will cover seven common types of patterns of organizations or text structures:
- Compare and Contrast
- Order of Importance
- Cause and Effect
- Problem and Solution
Here is a series of simple text structure worksheets. In this series, students are introduced to each pattern of organization.
Here is a series of more advanced text structure worksheets. These worksheets require students to know each pattern of organization and to be able to identify when each is used.
Common Core State Standards Related to Text Structure
Expand to View All Common Core State Standards Related to Text Structure
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.5 – Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
ELA Standards: Informational Texts
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.5 – Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.5 – Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.5 – Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.7.5 – Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.5 – Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.5 – Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.