Text Structure 5

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Text Structure 5
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The Revolutionary War was a time of great division. Americans were split into two groups: Patriots and Loyalists. Patriots were Americans who supported the struggle for independence. They believed that Americans should be free from the control of an English king. They fought against the English to establish a new government in America. Loyalists were Americans who remained loyal to the crown. Some of them were happy under English rule. Others believed that they might be rewarded after the Americans lost the war. Though both Patriots and Loyalists lived in America, a deep division ran between them.
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The Americans suffered many losses early on in the Revolutionary War. But the momentum began to shift after the Battles of Saratoga. In the Battles of Saratoga, the Americans captured British General Burgoyne's army. This was an important victory because of its effect on moral and perception. This victory convinced other countries that the Americans could win the war. Because of the American victory at the Battles of Saratoga, France declared war on England. Not only that, but other nations also began openly supporting the Americans. The Battles of Saratoga will be remembered as a pivotal moment in the war.
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American soldiers could not stand toe-to-toe against British soldiers in most cases. The British were better trained, better armed, and more experienced. The American soldiers would suffer heavy losses if they were to match the British. So the Americans used what are now known as guerrilla warfare tactics. In guerrilla warfare, small groups of fighters use ambushes, sabotages, and surprise to harass a larger, less mobile army. American soldiers used guerrilla warfare tactics to equalize some of the British's advantages. Guerrilla warfare tactics have been used throughout history to level the battlefield when too much asymmetry exists between opposing forces.
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American soldiers suffered horrible conditions during the Revolutionary War to win independence. Now you can experience some of these conditions. Here's how you can eat the same food that the soldiers ate at Valley Forge: fire cake. Fire cake is a horrible tasting blob of burnt gluten. It's easy to make. First mix flour with water until you get thick, damp dough. Form this damp dough it into a cake using your palms. Now place your doughy lump on a greased cookie sheet. Bake it at 400 degrees Fahrenheit until it is brown. Now you're ready to eat something like a fire cake. It'll be just like the awful ones that American soldiers ate at Valley Forge. Enjoy!
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The Americans learned how important friends can be during the Revolutionary War. When they first declared independence on July 4th, 1776, they had no allies. They didn't get an official ally until February 6th, 1778. After the Americans won at Saratoga, the French began assisting the American cause. The French went into deep debt for their efforts but they managed to trouble England greatly. The Americans would receive more help in June of 1779. This was when the Spanish joined the fight against the British. They secured Southern ports and supply lines. Without the help of these allies, the Americans may never have won their war for independence.
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The Continental Army served the interests of independence seeking Americans. This army was led throughout the war by General and commander-in-chief George Washington. The major generals reported to General Washington. The brigadier generals answered to the major generals. And the colonels reported to the majors. Beneath the majors were the captains, lieutenants, colonels, and sergeants. Then there were the privates. These were soldiers who had no rank. Life was hard for the private serving in the Continental Army.
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The moonlight shone dimly on the choppy waters of the Delaware River. The rough waters tossed the icy chards. The wind cut through the skeletal trees. The men muttered and loaded the boats. General Washington stood with one foot resting on a freshly cut tree stump. The silhouette of a bald eagle passed over the moon. Chains rattled. Steel clicked and clasped. Anticipation was in the air.
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There are many thoughtful ways to express your love without spending money. You could write a song or cook a meal for another person. But perhaps the best way to express yourself is to create a card. Creating a card is easy if you have the proper materials. Get yourself some nice, thick resume paper and fold it in half. Draw some imagery of love on the front of the card, like a heart or flower. If you're not good at drawing, you can clip out pictures from magazine. If you decide to use markers, be careful not to let them bleed through the paper and ruin the other side. Last, write a poem or heartfelt statement on the inside to your beloved. Now isn't that a better way to show your love than a rose from the gas station?
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These days, students have choices when it comes to selecting a public school. Once there was only neighborhood schools. Now charter schools have popped up in major cities across the country. Both types of school fill traditional roles. They provide instruction, serve lunch and other meals, and administer state tests. But they differ in many ways too. One key difference is the amount of time students spend in school. In Chicago, students who attend neighborhood schools do so for around 180 days a year. Each day is about seven hours long. Students who attend charter schools do so for around 200 days a year. Most charter school days are over eight hours long. Both types of school provide free public education to students meeting enrollment criteria. But students who attend charter schools spend much more time in class.
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Every Valentine's Day millions of school children slip each other cards. Most students have no idea how far back this practice dates. The earliest Valentine's Day card dates back to the 1400s. Few of these remain today. The cards continued to be distributed over the next four hundred years. But things really picked up in the early 1800s. This was when postage rates dropped. Mailing Valentine's Day cards became popular. It wasn't until the 1840s that the first Valentine's cards were mass produced. This is also around the time people began to throw them away in mass. Today, the Valentine's Day card continues to evolve. In 2010 people sent and estimated 15 million e-valentines. But some things never change: Will you be mine? Click "Y" or "N."
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Text Structure 5

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